Moscow State Institute of International Relations
(MGIMO-University)

B.A. in Government and International Affairs
School of Government and International Affairs

Alexander Shishkin Department of Philosophy

 

Introduction to Philosophy

 

Section 1. The Subject of Philosophy and the Character of Philosophical Knowledge.

Topic 1. The Subject of Philosophy and the Character of Philosophical Knowledge.

Summary: The concept of philosophy. Prevalent views of the nature, scope and functions of philosophy: philosophy as superscience (the Queen of Sciences), philosophy as underscience (pre-scientific or pseudoscientific speculation), philosophy as metascience (reflecting .science) The concept of reflection. Major parts and branches of philosophy: ontology, epistemology, axiology; philosophies of the branches of knowledge. Major philosophical traditions: Chinese, Indian, Western. Periodizations of Western philosophy: cultural (Ancient, Medieval, Modern, Contemporary); paradigmal (pre-Platonic, post-Platonic, post-Kantian).

Seminar 1. The Subject of Philosophy and the Character of Philosophic Knowledge.

       Required reading:

o   Aristotle. The Metaphysics (translated by Hugh Lawson-Tancred).  Book I (A), Ch. 1‑2 (London: Penguin, 1999), pp. 3ff; see also Internet resources.

o   Biryukov N., Zakharov A. The Basics of Philosophy: A Multimedia Manual 2nd ed., revised and expanded.  Lecture 1. The Subject of Philosophy and the Nature of Philosophical Knowledge.  MGIMO-University Publishing House, 2022 (MGIMO Books for International Students).  P. 7‑23.

o   Kenny Anthony. A New History of Western Philosophy.  Vol. I. Ancient Philosophy. Introduction (Oxford: Clarendon Press / New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), pp. xi‑xxi; see also Internet resources.

       Advanced reading:

o   Russell Bertrand. A History of Western Philosophy.  Introduction (New York et al.: Simon and Schuster, n/y), pp. xiii‑xxiii; see also Internet resources.

o   Windelband Wilhelm. A History of Philosophy (authorised translation by James H. Tufts).   1. The Name and Conception of Philosophy (Adamant, 2006), pp. 1‑8; see also Internet resources.

       Internet resources:

o   Aristotle. Metaphysics (translated by W. D. Ross).  Book I, Ch. 1‑2; http://www.classicallibrary.org/aristotle/metaphysics/book01.htm; also: http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/ancient/aristotle-metaphysics.txt; also: http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/metaphysics.1.i.html.

o   Biryukov Nikolai. The Basics of Philosophy.  Lecture 1. The Subject of Philosophy and the Nature of Philosophic Knowledge; http://ed.mgimo.ru/course/view.php?id=81.

o   Joll Nicholas. Contemporary Metaphilosophy, in: The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, http://www.iep.utm.edu/con-meta/.

o   Kenny Anthony. A New History of Western Philosophy [e-book].  General Introduction (Oxford: Clarendon Press / New York: Oxford University Press; 2010); available from: eBook Academic Collection (EBSCOhost).

o   Russell Bertrand. A History of Western Philosophy.  Introduction; http://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n9/mode/2up.

o   Windelband Wilhelm. A History of Philosophy (authorised translation by James H. Tufts).   1. The Name and Conception of Philosophy; http://archive.org/stream/historyofphiloso007974mbp#page/n21/mode/2up; also: http://bookre.org/reader?file=1268443&pg=19.

 

Section 2. Classical Greek Philosophy.

Summary: Chaos and cosmos: understanding nature by means of reason. Unity of nature and the problem of change and diversity. The Milesian School, Heracleitus, the Eleatic School. Reasoning versus sensual perception.

Seminar 2.1. From Thales to Zeno: Early Greek Philosophy of Nature.

       Required reading:

o   Biryukov N., Zakharov A. The Basics of Philosophy: A Multimedia Manual 2nd ed., revised and expanded.  Lecture 2. From Thales to Zeno: Early Greek Philosophy of Nature.  MGIMO-University Publishing House, 2022 (MGIMO Books for International Students).  P. 24‑56.

o   Kenny Anthony. A New History of Western Philosophy.  Vol. I. Ancient Philosophy. [Ch.] 1 (Oxford: Clarendon Press / New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), pp. 1‑26; see also Internet resources.

       Advanced reading:

o   Aristotle. The Metaphysics (translated by Hugh Lawson-Tancred).  Book I (A), Ch. 3‑8 (London: Penguin, 1999), pp. 10ff; see also Internet resources.

o   Copleston Frederick. A History of Philosophy.  Vol. 1: Greece and Rome. From the Pre-Socratics to Plotinus.  Ch. III‑VII (New York et al.: Doubleday, 1993), pp. 22‑60.

o   Curd Patricia (ed). A Presocratics Reader (Indianapolis: Hackett, 2011).

o   Hussey Edward. Pythagoreans and Eleatics, in: Taylor C. C. W. (ed). Routledge History of Philosophy.  Vol. I: From the Beginning to Plato.  Ch. 4 (London & New York: Routledge, 1997), pp. 117‑155.

o   Osborne Catherine. Heraclitus, in: Taylor C. C. W. (ed). Routledge History of Philosophy.  Vol. I: From the Beginning to Plato.  Ch. 3 (London & New York: Routledge, 1997), pp. 80‑113.

o   Russell Bertrand. A History of Western Philosophy.  Book I, Ch. II‑V.  New York et al.: Simon and Schuster, n/y.  P. 24‑52; see also Internet resources.

o   Schofield Malcolm. The Ionians, in: Taylor C. C. W. (ed). Routledge History of Philosophy.  Vol. I: From the Beginning to Plato.  Ch. 2. (London & New York: Routledge, 1997), pp. 42‑75.

o   Windelband Wilhelm. A History of Philosophy (authorised translation by James H. Tufts).   4‑6 (Adamant, 2006), pp. 27‑65; see also Internet resources.

       Internet resources:

o   Aristotle. Metaphysics (translated by W. D. Ross).  Book I, Ch. 3‑8; http://www.classicallibrary.org/aristotle/metaphysics/book01.htm; also: http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/ancient/aristotle-metaphysics.txt; also: http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/metaphysics.1.i.html.

o   Biryukov Nikolai. The Basics of Philosophy.  Lecture 2. From Thales to Zeno: Early Greek Philosophy of Nature; http://ed.mgimo.ru/course/view.php?id=81.

o   Curd Patricia. Presocratic Philosophy, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/presocratics/.

o   Graham Daniel W. Heraclitus, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/heraclitus/.

o   Huggett Nick. Zenos Paradoxes, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/paradox-zeno/.

o   Kenny Anthony. A New History of Western Philosophy [e-book].  Part 1. Ancient Philosophy. [Ch.] 1 (Oxford: Clarendon Press / Oxford University Press; 2010), pp. 7‑27; available from: eBook Academic Collection (EBSCOhost).

o   Palmer John. Parmenides, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/parmenides/.

o   Palmer John. Zeno of Elea, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/zeno-elea/.

o   Russell Bertrand. A History of Western Philosophy.  Book I, Ch. II‑V; http://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n53/mode/2up; http://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n59/mode/2up; http://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n65/mode/2up; http://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n75/mode/2up.

o   Windelband Wilhelm. A History of Philosophy (authorised translation by James H. Tufts).   4‑6; http://archive.org/stream/historyofphiloso007974mbp#page/n51/mode/2up; also: http://bookre.org/reader?file=1268443&pg=49; http://archive.org/stream/historyofphiloso007974mbp#page/n67/mode/2up; also: http://bookre.org/reader?file=1268443&pg=65; http://archive.org/stream/historyofphiloso007974mbp#page/n77/mode/2up; also: http://bookre.org/reader?file=1268443&pg=75.

Topic 2.2. Ancient Atomism and Plato: Substantiation of Materialism and Idealism.

Summary: The origins of ancient Atomism. The concept of atom. The ontology of Atomism. Preservation of matter. Determinism. The epistemology of Atomism. The nature of sensual perception. Limitations of ancient Atomism. The roots of Platonic idealism. The theory of Forms (Ideas) and the triune notion of eidos. The universals and the particulars. The world of senses and the world of mind. The ideal and the deficient.

Seminar 2.2. Ancient Atomism and Plato: Substantiation of Materialism and Idealism.

       Required reading:

o   Biryukov N., Zakharov A. The Basics of Philosophy: A Multimedia Manual 2nd ed., revised and expanded.  Lecture 3. Ancient Atomism: Substantiation of Materialism; Lecture 4. Plato: Substantiation of Idealism.  MGIMO-University Publishing House, 2022 (MGIMO Books for International Students).  P. 57‑93.

o   Kenny Anthony. A New History of Western Philosophy.  Vol. I. Ancient Philosophy. [Ch.] 1 (Oxford: Clarendon Press / New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), pp. 26‑64; see also Internet resources.

o   Plato. Meno (translated by Benjamin Jowett); also: translated by George Anastalpo and Laurence Berns.  Newburyport MA: Focus Publishing/R. Pullins Co., 2004; see also Internet resources.

       Advanced reading:

o   Benson Hugh H. Socrates and the Beginnings of Moral Philosophy, in: Taylor C. C. W. (ed). Routledge History of Philosophy.  Ch. 9. (London & New York: Routledge, 1997), pp. 298‑324.

o   Copleston Frederick. A History of Philosophy.  Vol. 1: Greece and Rome. From the Pre-Socratics to Plotinus.  Ch. X, XII‑XIV, XVI, XVII‑XXIV (New York et al.: Doubleday, 1993), pp. 72‑75, 81‑115, 124‑252.

o   Heinaman Robert. Plato: Metaphysics and Epistemology, in: Taylor C. C. W. (ed). Routledge History of Philosophy.  Ch.  10 (London & New York: Routledge, 1997), pp. 331‑358.

o   Kerferd J. B. The Sophists, in: Taylor C. C. W. (ed). Routledge History of Philosophy.  Ch. 7 (London & New York: Routledge, 1997), pp. 225‑245.

o   Lucretius Carus Titus. On the Nature of Things (translated by Walter Englert).  Books 1, 2, 4 (Newburyport MA: Focus Publishing / R. Pullins Co., 2003); also: translated by Frank Copley (W. W. Norton & Company, 2011); see also Internet resources.

o   McAleer Sean. Plato's Republic: An Introduction.  Ch. 8. Surfing the Third Wave: Platos Metaphysical Elevator, the Powers Argument, and the Infallibility of Knowledge; Ch. 11. The Allegory of the Cave.  OpenBook Publishers, 2020.  P. 151‑174, 211‑228; see also Internet resources.

o   Plato. Hippias Major, in: Socrates and the Sophists: Platos Protagoras, Euthydemus, Hippias Major and Cratylus (translated by Joe Sacks) (Newburyport MA: Focus Publishing / R. Pullins Co., 2010), pp. 129‑156; see also Internet resources.

o   Plato. Phaedo (translated by David Gallop).  Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009; also: translated by Benjamin Jowett (Arc Manor, 2008); see also Internet resources.

o   Plato. Theaetetus (translated by Joe Sacks) (Newburyport MA: Focus Publishing/R. Pullins Co., 2004); see also Internet resources.

o   Russell Bertrand. A History of Western Philosophy.  Book I, Ch. IX‑XI, XIII‑XIV, XV‑XVII (New York et al.: Simon and Schuster, n/y), pp. 64‑93, 104‑159; see also Internet resources.

o   Taylor C. C. W. Anaxagoras and the Atomists, in: Taylor C. C. W. (ed). Routledge History of Philosophy.  Vol. I: From the Beginning to Plato.  Ch. 6 (London & New York: Routledge, 1997), pp 192‑221.

o   Windelband Wilhelm. A History of Philosophy (authorised translation by James H. Tufts).   8‑11 (Adamant, 2006), pp. 87‑98, 104‑131; see also Internet resources.

       Internet resources:

o   Berryman Sylvia. Ancient Atomism, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/atomism-ancient/.

o   Berryman Sylvia. Democritus, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/democritus/.

o   Berryman Sylvia. Leucippus, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/leucippus/.

o   Biryukov Nikolai. The Basics of Philosophy.  Lecture 3. Ancient Atomism: Substantiation of Materialism; Lecture 4. Plato: Substantiation of Idealism; http://ed.mgimo.ru/course/view.php?id=81.

o   Chappell S.-G., Plato on Knowledge in the Theaetetus, in: The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2021 Edition), https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/plato-theaetetus/.

o   Kenny Anthony. A New History of Western Philosophy [e-book].  Part 1. Ancient Philosophy. [Ch.] 1 (Oxford: Clarendon Press / Oxford University Press; 2010), pp. 28‑56; available from: eBook Academic Collection (EBSCOhost).

o   Kraut Richard. Plato, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/plato/.

o   Lucretius Carus Titus. On the Nature of Things (translated by William Ellery Leonard).  Books 1, 2, 4; http://classics.mit.edu/Carus/nature_things.html; also: http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=3274058.

o   McAleer Sean. Plato's Republic: An Introduction.  Ch. 8. Surfing the Third Wave: Platos Metaphysical Elevator, the Powers Argument, and the Infallibility of Knowledge; Ch. 11. The Allegory of the Cave.  OpenBook Publishers, 2020.  P. 151‑174, 211‑228; https://www.openbookpublishers.com/htmlreader/978-1-80064-053-5/main.html.

o   Nails Debra. Socrates, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/socrates/.

o   Plato. Hippias (major) (translated by Benjamin Jowett); http://www.ellopos.net/elpenor/greek-texts/ancient-greece/plato/plato-hippias-major.asp.

o   Plato. Meno (translated by Benjamin Jowett); http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/meno.html; also: http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/ancient/plato-meno.txt.

o   Plato. Phaedo (translated by Benjamin Jowett); http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1658/1658-h/1658-h.htm; http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1658/1658.txt.

o   Plato. Theaetetus (translated by Benjamin Jowett); http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1726/1726-h/1726-h.htm; http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/1726/pg1726.txt.

o   Rickless S. Platos Parmenides, in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2020 Edition); https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/plato-parmenides/.

o   Russell Bertrand. A History of Western Philosophy  Book I, Ch. IX‑XI, XIII‑XVIII;
http://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n95/mode/2up.; http://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n105/mode/2up; http://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n113/mode/2up; http://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n135/mode/2up; http://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n139/mode/2up; http://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n151/mode/2up;
http://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n165/mode/2up (pp. 154‑155 missing); http://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n173/mode/2up; http://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n179/mode/2up.

o   Silverman Allan. Platos Middle Period Metaphysics and Epistemology, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/plato-metaphysics/.

o   Taylor C. C. W. and Mi-Kyoung Lee. The Sophists, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/sophists/.

o   Windelband Wilhelm. A History of Philosophy (authorised translation by James H. Tufts).   8‑11; http://archive.org/stream/historyofphiloso007974mbp#page/n107/mode/2up; also: http://bookre.org/reader?file=1268443&pg=105; http://archive.org/stream/historyofphiloso007974mbp#page/n125/mode/2up; also: http://bookre.org/reader?file=1268443&pg=122; http://archive.org/stream/historyofphiloso007974mbp#page/n129/mode/2up.; also: http://bookre.org/reader?file=1268443&pg=127; http://archive.org/stream/historyofphiloso007974mbp#page/n137/mode/2up; also: http://bookre.org/reader?file=1268443&pg=134.

Topic 2.3. Aristotle: The Structure of Reality and the Structure of Knowledge.

Summary: Aristotles ontology: the structure of reality. Criticism of Platos theory of ideas: terminological, logical, and philosophical shortcomings. Aristotles main ontological doctrines: the doctrine of matter and form (hylomorphism), the doctrine of potentiality and actuality, the doctrine of causation. The four types of causes: the material cause, the formal cause, the efficient cause, the final cause. te being and its kinds: the ten categories. Aristotles epistemology: the structure of knowledge. The five kinds of knowledge: sense perception, experience, art, science, philosophy, The process of cognition: ascent from the particular to the universal; abstraction as the initial procedure of theoretical thought; knowledge of essences and necessities as the goal of science. The Aristotelian model of scientific knowledge: scientific knowledge as knowledge of causes, conceptualisation of change and development; classification as systematisation of knowledge. The Aristotelian concept of truth.

Seminar 2.3. Aristotle: The Structure of Reality and the Structure of Knowledge.

       Required reading:

o   Aristotle. The Metaphysics.  Book I (A) (translated by Benjamin Jowett); also: translated by Hugh Lawson-Tancred (London: Penguin, 1999), pp. 3ff; see also Internet resources.

o   Biryukov N., Zakharov A. The Basics of Philosophy: A Multimedia Manual 2nd ed., revised and expanded.  Lecture 5. Aristotles Ontology: The Structure of Reality; Lecture 6. Aristotles Epistemology: The Structure of Knowledge; Lecture 7. Aristotles Logic: The Tool and Language of Thought.  MGIMO-University Publishing House, 2022 (MGIMO Books for International Students).  P. 94‑185.

o   Kenny Anthony. A New History of Western Philosophy.  Vol. I. Ancient Philosophy. [Ch.] 2 (Oxford: Clarendon Press / New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), pp. 65‑94; see also Internet resources.

       Advanced reading:

o   Aristotle. Categories (translated by J. L Ackrill).  Ch. 1‑9, in: Aristotle. Categories and De Interpretatione (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), pp. 3ff; see also Internet resources.

o   Biryukov N., Ulanova A. The Basics of Formal Logic: A Multimedia Manual.  MGIMO-University Publishing House, 2023.  272 p.

o   Code Alan. Aristotles Logic and Metaphysics, in: Furley David (ed). Routledge History of Philosophy.  Vol. II: From Aristotle to Augustine.  Ch. 2 (London & New York: Routledge, 1999), pp. 40‑71.

o   Copleston Frederick. A History of Philosophy.  Vol. 1: Greece and Rome. From the Pre-Socratics to Plotinus.  Ch. XVII‑XXX, XXXIV (New York et al.: Doubleday, 1993), pp. 266‑331, 372‑378.

o   Furley David. Aristotle the Philosopher of Nature; in: Furley David (ed). Routledge History of Philosophy.  Vol. II: From Aristotle to Augustine.  Ch. 1 (London & New York: Routledge, 1999), pp. 9‑37.

o   Newman A. The Correspondence Theory of Truth.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

o   Ross David. Aristotle. Ch. II, VI (London and New York: Routledge, 1995). pp. 21-64, 162-196.

o   Russell Bertrand. A History of Western Philosophy.  Book I, Ch. XIX‑XXIII (New York et al.: Simon and Schuster, n/y), pp. 159‑207; see also Internet resources.

o   Windelband Wilhelm. A History of Philosophy (authorised translation by James H. Tufts).   12‑13 (Adamant, 2006), pp. 132‑154; see also Internet resources.

       Internet resources:

o   Aristotle. Categories (translated by J. L Ackrill).  Ch. 1‑9; http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/a/aristotle/categories/; also: file:///G:/E-Books/=Philosophy/Ancient%20Phiolosophy/Aristotle,%20Categories.htm.

o   Aristotle. Metaphysics (translated by W. D. Ross).  Book I; http://www.classicallibrary.org/aristotle/metaphysics/book01.htm; also: http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/ancient/aristotle-metaphysics.txt; also: http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/metaphysics.1.i.html.

o   Biryukov Nikolai. The Basics of Philosophy.  Lecture 5. Aristotle: The Structure of Reality; Lecture 6. Aristotle: The Structure of Knowledge; http://ed.mgimo.ru/course/view.php?id=81.

o   Cohen S. Marc. Aristotles Metaphysics, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-metaphysics/.

o   David Marian. The Correspondence Theory of Truth, in: The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2020 Edition); https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/truth-correspondence/.

o   Falcon Andrea. Aristotle on Causality, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-causality/.

o   Kenny Anthony. A New History of Western Philosophy [e-book].  Part 1. Ancient Philosophy. [Ch.] 2 (Oxford: Clarendon Press / Oxford University Press; 2010), pp. 57‑77; available from: eBook Academic Collection (EBSCOhost).

o   Parry R. Episteme and Techne.  Aristotle, in: The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2020 Edition; https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/episteme-techne/#Aris

o   Ross David. Aristotle. Ch. II, VI; https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.536932/mode/2up; pp. 20-61, 154-186.

o   Russell Bertrand. A History of Western Philosophy.  Book I, Ch. XIX‑XXIII; http://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n191/mode/2up; http://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n201/mode/2up; http://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n213/mode/2up; http://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n225/mode/2up; http://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n233/mode/2up.

o   Shields Christopher. Aristotle, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle/.

o   Smith Robin. Aristotles Logic, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-logic/.

o   Windelband Wilhelm. A History of Philosophy (authorised translation by James H. Tufts).   12‑13; http://archive.org/stream/historyofphiloso007974mbp#page/n153/mode/2up; also: http://bookre.org/reader?file=1268443&pg=150; http://archive.org/stream/historyofphiloso007974mbp#page/n159/mode/2up; also: http://bookre.org/reader?file=1268443&pg=157.

 

Section 3. Modern European Philosophy.

Topic 3.1. Francis Bacon and René Descartes: Substantiation of Empiricism and Rationalism.

Summary: Roots of Empiricism. The idols of the mind: the idols of the tribe, the idols of the cave, the idols of the marketplace, the idols of the theatre. The nature of scientific knowledge: knowledge as power; experience and experiment. The new method of inductive reasoning: tables of presence, tables of absence, tables of comparison and of degree. Modus tollendo ponens. Descartes epistemology: radical doubt; Cogito ergo sum; natural light; the idea of God and the Divine Guarantee; the four rules of method. Descartes ontology: dualism of mind and matter and the problem of their interaction: natural light (innate ideas) and the pineal gland. Later Cartesianism: occasionalism.

Seminar 3.1. Francis Bacon and René Descartes: Substantiation of Empiricism and Rationalism.

       Required reading:

o   Biryukov N., Zakharov A. The Basics of Philosophy: A Multimedia Manual 2nd ed., revised and expanded.  Lecture 11. Francis Bacon: Substantiation of Empiricism; Lecture 12. René Descartes and Benedict Spinoza: Substantiation of Rationalism.  MGIMO-University Publishing House, 2022 (MGIMO Books for International Students).  P. 262‑304.

o   Descartes René. Meditations on First Philosophy.  Meditations First to Third (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996); also: (Indianapolis: Hackett, 2006).

o   Kenny Anthony. A New History of Western Philosophy.  Vol. III. The Rise of Modern Philosophy. [Ch.] 1‑2 (Oxford: Clarendon Press / New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), pp. 26‑41, 58‑70; see also Internet resources.

       Advanced reading:

o   Bacon Francis. The New Organon.  Book I.  Aphorisms I to LXX (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 33ff; see also Internet resources.

o   Copleston Frederick. A History of Philosophy.  Vol. 3: Late Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy. Ockham, Francis Bacon, and the Beginning of the Modern World.  Ch. XIX (New York et al.: Doubleday, 1993), pp. 292‑309.

o   Copleston Frederick. A History of Philosophy.  Vol. 4: Modern Philosophy. From Descartes to Leibniz.  Ch. II‑V, VIII‑XII (New York et al.: Doubleday, 1994), pp. 63‑138, 174‑237.

o   Cottingham John. Descartes: Metaphysics and the Philosophy of Mind, in: Parkinson G. H. R. (ed.). Routledge History of Philosophy.  Vol. IV: The Renaissance and Seventeenth-century Rationalism.  Ch. 6 (London & New York: Routledge, 1993), p. 187‑215.

o   Gaukroger Stephen. Descartes: Methodology, in: Parkinson G. H. R. (ed.). Routledge History of Philosophy.  Vol. IV: The Renaissance and Seventeenth-century Rationalism.  Ch. 5 (London & New York: Routledge, 1993), pp. 156‑182.

o   Parkinson G. H. R. Spinoza: Metaphysics and Knowledge, in: Parkinson G. H. R. (ed.). Routledge History of Philosophy.  Vol. IV: The Renaissance and Seventeenth-century Rationalism.  Ch.  8 (London & New York: Routledge, 1993), pp. 253‑284.

o   Pérez-Ramos Antonio. Francis Bacon and Mans Two-faced Kingdom, in: Parkinson G. H. R. (ed.). Routledge History of Philosophy.  Vol. IV: The Renaissance and Seventeenth-century Rationalism.  Ch. 4 (London & New York: Routledge, 1993), pp. 130‑150.

o   Radner Daisie. Occasionalism.  Ch. 10 (London & New York: Routledge, 1993), pp. 320‑348.

o   Russell Bertrand. A History of Western Philosophy.  Book III, Ch. VI‑VII, IX‑X (New York et al.: Simon and Schuster, n/y), pp. 525‑546, 557‑580; see also Internet resources.

o   Windelband Wilhelm. A History of Philosophy (authorised translation by James H. Tufts).   30‑31 (Adamant, 2006), pp. 383‑425; see also Internet resources.

       Internet resources:

o   Bacon Francis. Novum Organum. Book I, Aphorisms I‑LXX; http://archive.org/stream/baconsnovumorgan00bacouoft#page/6/mode/2up; also: http://oll.libertyfund.org/?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php%3Ftitle=1432&Itemid=27; also: http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Novum_Organum/Book_I_%28Spedding%29.

o   Biryukov Nikolai. The Basics of Philosophy.  Lecture 10. Francis Bacon: Substantiation of Empiricism; Lecture 11. René Descartes and Benedict Spinoza: Substantiation of Rationalism; http://ed.mgimo.ru/course/view.php?id=81.

o   Descartes René. Meditations on First Philosophy (translated by John Veitch); http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl302/texts/descartes/meditations/meditations.html; also: http://www.classicallibrary.org/descartes/meditations/; also: http://www.wright.edu/cola/descartes/mede.html; also: (unidentified translator) http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/descartes/1639/meditations.htm.

o   Hatfield Gary. René Descartes, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/descartes/.

o   Kenny Anthony. A New History of Western Philosophy [e-book].  Part 3. The Rise of Modern Philosophy. [Ch.] 1‑2 (Oxford: Clarendon Press / Oxford University Press; 2010), pp. 521‑531, 544‑553; available from: eBook Academic Collection (EBSCOhost).

o   Klein Jürgen. Francis Bacon, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/francis-bacon/.

o   Lee Sukjae. Occasionalism, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/occasionalism/.

o   Lokhorst Gert-Jan. Descartes and the Pineal Gland, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/pineal-gland/.

o   Nadler Steven. Baruch Spinoza, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/spinoza/.

o   Newman Lex. Descartes Epistemology, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2019 Edition); http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/descartes-epistemology/.

o   Nolan Lawrence. Descartes Ontological Argument, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2021 Edition); http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/descartes-ontological/.

o   Russell Bertrand. A History of Western Philosophy.  Book III, Ch. VI‑VII, IX‑X; http://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n545/mode/2up; http://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n561/mode/2up; http://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n579/mode/2up; http://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n591/mode/2up.

o   Windelband Wilhelm. A History of Philosophy (authorised translation by James H. Tufts).   30‑31; http://archive.org/stream/historyofphiloso007974mbp#page/n407/mode/2up; http://archive.org/stream/historyofphiloso007974mbp#page/n423/mode/2up; also: http://archive.org/stream/historyofphiloso02wind#page/382/mode/2up; http://archive.org/stream/historyofphiloso02wind#page/398/mode/2up.

Topic 3.2. John Locke and Gottfried Leibniz: Empiricism versus Rationalism. George Berkeley and David Hume: The Demise of Empiricism.

Summary: Nativism: pro et contra. Tabula rasa versus universal consent, latent knowledge, spontaneous agreement, and deductive reasoning. Rationality of the world as prerequisite of its understandability. Truths eternal and factual. Lockes reinterpretation of empiricism: experience as sensory perception. Bodily contact as transmitter of information. Primary and secondary qualities. Ideas of sensation and ideas of reflection. Simple and compound ideas. Berkeleys immaterialism: criticism of Lockes concept of primary and secondary qualities; criticism of the notion of matter. Radical nominalism. Subjective idealism: ontological version. Things as collections of ideas. Existence of unperceived entities and the reality of other minds. The bogey of solipsism. Humes version of subjective idealism: knowledge reduced to personal perception. The limits of demonstrative knowledge. The mental nature of causality. Natural beliefs and their functions. Scepticism.

Seminar 3.2. John Locke and Gottfried Leibniz: Empiricism versus Rationalism. George Berkeley and David Hume: The Demise of Empiricism.

       Required reading:

o   Berkeley George. Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous.  The First Dialogue (Pearson, 2006); also: (Indianapolis: Hackett, 1979).  P. 7‑42; see also Internet resources.

o   Biryukov N., Zakharov A. The Basics of Philosophy: A Multimedia Manual 2nd ed., revised and expanded.  Lecture 13. John Locke and Gottfried Leibniz: The Ontological Foundations and the Nature of Human Understanding; Lecture 14. George Berkeley and David Hume: Idealism Ontological and Epistemological.  MGIMO-University Publishing House, 2022 (MGIMO Books for International Students).  P. 305‑346.

o   Kenny Anthony. A New History of Western Philosophy.  Vol. III. The Rise of Modern Philosophy. [Ch.] 2‑3 (Oxford: Clarendon Press / New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), pp. 47‑53, 70‑86; see also Internet resources.

       Advanced reading:

o   Berman David. George Berkeley // Routledge History of Philosophy.  Vol. V: British Philosophy and the Age of Enlightenment / Ed. by Brown Stuart.  Ch. 5.  London & New York: Routledge, 1996.  P. 101‑119.

o   Copleston Frederick. A History of Philosophy.  Vol. 4: Modern Philosophy. From Descartes to Leibniz.  Ch. XV‑XVII (New York et al.: Doubleday, 1994), pp. 264‑319.

o   Copleston Frederick. A History of Philosophy.  Vol. 5: Modern Philosophy. The British Philosophers from Hobbes to Hume.  Ch. IV‑VI, XI‑XII, XIV-XV.  New York et al.: Doubleday, 1994.  P. 67‑122, 202‑229, 258‑317.

o   Jacobson Anne Jaab. David Hume on Human Understanding, in: Stuart Brown (ed.). Routledge History of Philosophy.  Vol. V: British Philosophy and the Age of Enlightenment.  Ch. 6 (London & New York: Routledge, 1996), pp. 123‑144.

o   Jolley Nicholas. Leibniz: Truth, Knowledge and Metaphysics, in: Parkinson G. H. R. (ed.). Routledge History of Philosophy.  Vol. IV: The Renaissance and Seventeenth-century Rationalism.  Ch. 11 (London & New York: Routledge, 1993), pp. 353‑384.

o   Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm. Monadology (translated by George R. Montgomery), in: Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm. Discourse on Metaphysics and the Monadology (Prometheus Books, 1992); see also Internet resources.

o   Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm. New Essays on Human Understanding.  Book 1 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996); see also Internet resources.

o   Locke John. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.  Book I (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979); see also Internet resources.

o   Russell Bertrand. A History of Western Philosophy.  Book III, Ch. XI, XIII, XVI‑XVII (New York et al.: Simon and Schuster, n/y), pp. 581‑596, 604‑617, 647‑674; see also Internet resources.

o   Tipton Jan. Locke: Knowledge and Its Limits, in: Stuart Brown (ed.). Routledge History of Philosophy.  Vol. V: British Philosophy and the Age of Enlightenment.  Ch. 4 (London & New York: Routledge, 1996), pp. 56‑74.

o   Windelband Wilhelm. A History of Philosophy (authorised translation by James H. Tufts).   33‑34 (Adamant, 2006), pp. 449‑486; see also Internet resources.

       Internet resources:

o   Berkeley George. Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous  The First Dialogue; http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Three_Dialogues_Between_Hylas_and_Philonous.

o   Biryukov Nikolai. The Basics of Philosophy.  Lecture 12. John Locke and Gottfried Leibniz: Ontological Foundations and the Nature of Human Understanding; Lecture 13. George Berkeley and David Hume: Idealism Ontological and Epistemological; http://ed.mgimo.ru/course/view.php?id=81.

o   De Pierris Graciela and Friedman Michael. Kant and Hume on Causality, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-hume-causality/.

o   Downing Lisa. George Berkeley, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/berkeley/.

o   Kenny Anthony. A New History of Western Philosophy [e-book].  Part 3. The Rise of Modern Philosophy. [Ch.] 2‑3 (Oxford: Clarendon Press / Oxford University Press; 2010), pp. 536‑541, 553‑566; available from: eBook Academic Collection (EBSCOhost).

o   Khlentzos Drew. Challenges to Metaphysical Realism, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/realism-sem-challenge/.

o   Kochiras Hylarie. Lockes Philosophy of Science, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/locke-philosophy-science/.

o   Kulstad Mark and Carlin Laurence. Leibnizs Philosophy of Mind, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/leibniz-mind/.

o   Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm. Monadology; http://www.andrew.cmu.edu/user/kk3n/80-300/leibniz-monadology.htm; also: (translated by Robert Latta); http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl302/texts/leibniz/monadology.html; also: http://www.rbjones.com/rbjpub/philos/classics/leibniz/monad.htm.

o   Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm. New Essays on Human Understanding  Book 1; http://www.earlymoderntexts.com/pdf/leibnew1.pdf; also: http://archive.org/stream/newessaysconcern00leib#page/n7/mode/2up.

o   Locke John. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.  Book I; http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl302/texts/locke/locke1/contents1.html; also: http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/l/locke/john/l81u/B1.html.

o   Look Brandon C. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/leibniz/.

o   Morris William Edward. David Hume, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/hume/.

o   Russell Bertrand. A History of Western Philosophy.  Book III, Ch. XI, XIII, XVI‑XVII; http://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n603/mode/2up; http://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n627/mode/2up; http://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n673/mode/2up; http://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n685/mode/2up.

o   Uzgalis William. John Locke, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/locke/.

o   Windelband Wilhelm. A History of Philosophy (authorised translation by James H. Tufts).   33‑34; http://archive.org/stream/historyofphiloso007974mbp#page/n473/mode/2up; also: http://archive.org/stream/historyofphiloso02wind#page/448/mode/2up; http://archive.org/stream/historyofphiloso007974mbp#page/n491/mode/2up; also: http://archive.org/stream/historyofphiloso02wind#page/466/mode/2up.

Topic 3.3. Kants Theory of Knowledge: The Birth of Classical German Philosophy.

Summary: The problem of synthetic a priori propositions. The Transcendental Aesthetic: time and space as a priori forms of human sense perceptions. The Transcendental Analytic: the transcendental unity of apperception; categories as a priori forms of understanding; synthetic principles of pure understanding. The Transcendental Dialectic: the transcendental ideas (the soul, the world, the God) and dialectical procedures (paralogisms, antinomies, the Ideal) of pure reason.

Seminar 3.3. Kants Theory of Knowledge: The Birth of Classical German Philosophy.

       Required reading:

o   Biryukov N., Zakharov A. The Basics of Philosophy: A Multimedia Manual 2nd ed., revised and expanded.  Lecture 15. Kants Theory of Knowledge.  MGIMO-University Publishing House, 2022 (MGIMO Books for International Students).  P. 347‑385.

o   Kenny Anthony. A New History of Western Philosophy.  Vol. III. The Rise of Modern Philosophy. [Ch.] 3 (Oxford: Clarendon Press / New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), pp. 100‑108; see also Internet resources.

       Advanced reading:

o   Bonevac Daniel. Kants Copernican Revolution, in: Solomon Robert C. and Higgins Kathleen M. (eds.). Routledge History of Philosophy. Vol. VI: The Age of German Idealism.  Ch. 2 (London & New York: Routledge, 1993), pp. 40‑65.

o   Copleston Frederick. A History of Philosophy.  Vol. 6: Modern Philosophy. From the French Enlightenment to Kant.  Ch. X‑XIII (London: Search Press & New York: Paulist Press, 1977), pp. 180‑307.

o   Kant Immanuel. Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics ( Pearson, 1994); also: (Indianapolis: Hackett, 2012); see also Internet resources.

o   Russell Bertrand. A History of Western Philosophy.  Book III, Ch. XX (New York et al.: Simon and Schuster, n/y), pp. 701‑718; see also Internet resources.

o   Windelband Wilhelm. A History of Philosophy (authorised translation by James H. Tufts).   38 (Adamant, 2006), pp. 537‑550; see also Internet resources.

o   Wood Allen W. Kant.  Ch. 2‑5.  Malden, MA, USA, Oxford, UK, Carlton, Australia: Blackwell Publishing, 2005 (Blackwell Great Minds).  P. 24‑109.

       Internet resources:

o   Biryukov Nikolai. The Basics of Philosophy.  Lecture 14. Kants Theory of Knowledge; http://ed.mgimo.ru/course/view.php?id=81.

o   Brook Andrew. Kants View of the Mind and Consciousness of Self, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-mind/.

o   De Pierris Graciela and Friedman Michael. Kant and Hume on Causality, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-hume-causality/.

o   Grier Michelle. Kants Critique of Metaphysics, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-metaphysics/.

o   Janiak Andrew. Kants Views on Space and Time, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-spacetime/.

o   Kant Immanuel. Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics; http://hudsoncress.net/hudsoncress.org/html/library/western-philosophy/Kant,%20Immanuel%20-%20Prolegomena%20To%20Any%20Future%20Metaphysics.PDF; also: http://philosophy.eserver.org/kant-prolegomena.txt; also: http://ebookbrowse.com/kant-immanuel-prolegomena-to-any-future-metaphysics-pdf-d285651123; also: http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Prolegomena_to_Any_Future_Metaphysics.

o   Kenny Anthony. A New History of Western Philosophy [e-book].  Part 3. The Rise of Modern Philosophy. [Ch.] 3 (Oxford: Clarendon Press / Oxford University Press; 2010), pp. 576‑582; available from: eBook Academic Collection (EBSCOhost).

o   Rey Georges. The Analytic/Synthetic Distinction, in: The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2020 Edition); https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/analytic-synthetic/.

o   Rohlf Michael. Immanuel Kant, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant/.

o   Russell Bertrand. A History of Western Philosophy.  Book III, Ch. XX; http://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n729/mode/2up.

o   Windelband Wilhelm. A History of Philosophy (authorised translation by James H. Tufts).   38; http://archive.org/stream/historyofphiloso007974mbp#page/n561/mode/2up; also: http://archive.org/stream/historyofphiloso02wind#page/536/mode/2up.

Topic 3.4. Georg Hegel and Karl Marx: The End of Classical German Philosophy.

Summary: The basic principles: the unity of substance and subject; reality as development. Hegels system: the structure and stages of Absolute Reality. Hegels method: the dialectics. Hegels influence. The materialist conception of history. History as an objectively determined process. The problem of social (historical) laws. Social classes as agents of socially determined activities. The concept of material production. The structure of social reality: the material base and the institutional/ideological superstructure. Progress as transition to new socioeconomic formations.

Seminar 3.4. Georg Hegel and Karl Marx: The End of Classical German Philosophy.

       Required reading:

o   Biryukov N., Zakharov A. The Basics of Philosophy: A Multimedia Manual 2nd ed., revised and expanded.  Lecture 16. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: Absolute Idealism; Lecture 17. Karl Marx: Historical Materialism.  MGIMO-University Publishing House, 2022 (MGIMO Books for International Students).  P. 386‑422.

o   Kenny Anthony. A New History of Western Philosophy.  Vol. III. The Rise of Modern World. [Ch.] 3 (Oxford: Clarendon Press / New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), pp. 111‑116; see also Internet resources.

o   Kenny Anthony. A New History of Western Philosophy.  Vol. IV. Philosophy in the Modern World. [Ch.] 11 (Oxford: Clarendon Press / New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), pp. 280‑290; see also Internet resources.

       Advanced reading:

o   Copleston Frederick. A History of Philosophy  Vol. 7: Modern Philosophy. From the Post-Kantian Idealists to Marx, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche.  Ch. IX-XI (New York et al.: Doubleday, 1994), pp. 159‑247.

o   De Vries Willem. Hegels Logic and Philosophy of Mind, in: Solomon Robert C. and Higgins Kathleen M. (eds.). Routledge History of Philosophy. Vol. VI: The Age of German Idealism.  Ch. 7 (London & New York: Routledge, 1993), pp. 216‑250.

o   Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. The Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences.   86‑98, in: Hegels Logic (translated by William Wallace) (Marxists Internet Archive, 2009), pp. 222‑244; also: Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. The Encyclopaedia Logic (translated by Theodore F. Geraets, W. A. Suchting , H. S. Harris) (Indianapolis: Hackett, 1991), pp. 136‑157; see also Internet resources.

o   Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. The Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences.   553‑577, in: Hegels Philosophy of Mind (translated by William Wallace) (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), pp. 259‑278.

o   Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. Phenomenology of Spirit.  Introduction; [Ch.] I: Certainty at the Level of Sense Experience  the This, and Meaning (translated by A. V. Miller) (Oxford et al.: Oxford University Press, 1977), pp. 47‑66; also: The Phenomenology of Mind (translated by J. B. Baillie) (New York: Dover, 2003), pp. 44‑61; see also Internet resources.

o   Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. Who Thinks Abstractly?, in: Hegel: Texts and Commentary (translated by Walter Arnold Kaufmann) (Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, 1966), pp. 113‑118; see also Internet resources.

o   Ilyenkov Evald. Dialectical Logic: Essays on Its History and Theory.  Ch. 5: Dialectics as Logic (translated by H. Campbell Creighton) (Progress Publishers, 1977), pp. 105‑135.

o   Marx Karl, Engels Friedrich. The German Ideology. [P.] I. Feuerbach: Opposition of the Materialist and Idealist Outlooks // Marx & Engels Collected Works.  Vol. 5.  P. 27-58.

o   Rauch Leo. Hegel, Spirit, and Politics, in: Solomon Robert C. and Higgins Kathleen M. (eds.). Routledge History of Philosophy. Vol. VI: The Age of German Idealism.  Ch. 8 (London & New York: Routledge, 1993), pp. 254‑287.

o   Russell Bertrand. A History of Western Philosophy.  Book III, Ch. XXII, XXVII (New York et al.: Simon and Schuster, n/y), pp. 730‑746, 782‑790; see also Internet resources.

o   Solomon Robert C. Hegels Phenomenology of Spirit, in: Solomon Robert C. and Higgins Kathleen M. (eds.). Routledge History of Philosophy. Vol. VI: The Age of German Idealism.  Ch. 6 (London & New York: Routledge, 1993), pp. 181‑213.

o   Windelband Wilhelm. A History of Philosophy (authorised translation by James H. Tufts).   42 (Adamant, 2006), pp. 590‑615; see also Internet resources.

       Internet resources:

o   Biryukov Nikolai. The Basics of Philosophy.  Lecture 15. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: Absolute Idealism; Lecture 16. Karl Marx: Historical Materialism; http://ed.mgimo.ru/course/view.php?id=81.

o   Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. The Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences.   86‑98 (translated by William Wallace); https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/hegel/works/sl/slbeing.htm.

o   Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. The Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences.   553‑577 (translated by William Wallace); https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/hegel/works/sp/abspirit.htm.

o   Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. Phenomenology of Mind.  Introduction; [Ch.] I: Certainty at the Level of Sense Experience  the This, and Meaning; http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/hegel/works/ph/phintro.htm & https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/hegel/works/ph/phaa.htm.

o   Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. Who Thinks Abstractly?; http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/hegel/works/se/abstract.htm.

o   Ilyenkov Evald. Dialectical Logic: Essays on Its History and Theory.  Ch. 5: Dialectics as Logic (translated by H. Campbell Creighton); http://www.marxists.org/archive/ilyenkov/works/essays/essay5.htm.

o   Kenny Anthony. A New History of Western Philosophy [e-book].  Part 3. The Rise of Modern Philosophy. [Ch.] 3 (Oxford: Clarendon Press / Oxford University Press; 2010), pp. 584‑587; available from: eBook Academic Collection (EBSCOhost).

o   Kenny Anthony. A New History of Western Philosophy: In Four Parts [e-book].  Oxford: Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press; 2010.  P. 769-773, 965-973; available from: eBook Academic Collection (EBSCOhost).

o   Marx Karl, Engels Friedrich. The German Ideology. [P.] I. Feuerbach: Opposition of the Materialist and Idealist Outlooks // https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1845/german-ideology/ch01.htm.

o   Redding Paul. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, in: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/hegel/.

o   Russell Bertrand. A History of Western Philosophy.  Book III, Ch. XXII, XXVII; http://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n757/mode/2up;
https://archive.org/stream/westernphilosoph035502mbp#page/n813/mode/2up.

o   Windelband Wilhelm. A History of Philosophy (authorised translation by James H. Tufts).   42; http://archive.org/stream/historyofphiloso007974mbp#page/n617/mode/2up; also: http://archive.org/stream/historyofphiloso02wind#page/590/mode/2up.

o   Wolff Jonathan. Karl Marx // https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/marx/.

 

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