Moscow State Institute of International Relations
(MGIMO-University)

B.A. in Government and International Affairs
School of Government and International Affairs

Alexander Shishkin Department of Philosophy

Logic

Tasks and Questions of Quiz 2
(covering themes 3 and 4)

Compiled by Nikolai Biryukov

2021/22 School Year

 

1. Definitions of logical terms (from presentations 1 to 4).

Define

o   absolute concept

o   abstract concept

o   affirmative proposition

o   alethic modality

o   antecedent

o   apodeictic proposition

o   assertoric proposition

o   biconditional proposition

o   categorical proposition

o   classification

o   collective concept

o   compatible concepts

o   complex proposition

o   concept

o   conclusion

o   concrete concept

o   conditional proposition

o   consequent

o   contradictory concepts

o   contradictory propositions

o   contraposition to predicate

o   contraposition to subject

o   contrary concepts

o   contrary propositions

o   converse

o   conversion

o   copula

o   cosubalternate concepts

o   deductive inference

o   definiendum

o   definiens

o   dichotomy

o   differentia

o   disjunctive proposition

o   distributed term

o   distribution (in logic)

o   elementary proposition

o   empty concept

o   equivalent concepts

o   equivalent concepts

o   equivalent propositions

o   equivocation

o   exclusive disjunctive proposition

o   extension

o   fallacy of circularity

o   fallacy of incongruity

o   fallacy of mutual exclusivity

o   fallacy of obscurity

o   generalisation

o   genus

o   hypothetical proposition

o   immediate inference

o   inclusive disjunctive proposition

o   incompatible concepts

o   inductive inference

o   inference

o   intension

o   intersecting concepts

o   logic

o   logical definition

o   logical relations between concepts

o   logical relations between propositions

o   necessary condition

o   negative proposition

o   non-empty concept

o   non-registering concept

o   obverse

o   obversion

o   obverted contraposition

o   opposite concepts

o   overly broad definition

o   overly narrow definition

o   particular proposition

o   predicate

o   premise

o   problematic proposition

o   proposition

o   quantifier

o   registering concept

o   relational concept

o   singular concept

o   singular proposition

o   specialisation

o   subalternate concept

o   subalternate proposition

o   subalternation

o   subcontrary propositions

o   subject

o   sufficient condition

o   superaltern concept

o   superaltern proposition

o   syllogism

o   the square of opposition

o   undistributed term

o   universal concept

o   universal proposition

 

2. Inferences based on logical relations between propositions (inferences about truth values of related propositions).

 

o   Select the correct answer.

The superaltern proposition A is true. The subaltern proposition B is
[    ]     true
[    ]     false
[    ]     impossible to say

The superaltern proposition A is false. The subaltern proposition B is
[    ]     true
[    ]     false
[    ]     impossible to say

The subaltern proposition A is true. The superaltern proposition B is
[    ]     true
[    ]     false
[    ]     impossible to say

The subaltern proposition A is false. The superaltern proposition B is
[    ]     true
[    ]     false
[    ]     impossible to say

The proposition A is true. The contrary proposition B is
[    ]     true
[    ]     false
[    ]     impossible to say

The proposition A is false. The contrary proposition B is
[    ]     true
[    ]     false
[    ]     impossible to say

The proposition A is true. The subcontrary proposition B is
[    ]     true
[    ]     false
[    ]     impossible to say

The proposition A is false. The subcontrary proposition B is
[    ]     true
[    ]     false
[    ]     impossible to say

The proposition A is true. The contradictory proposition B is
[    ]     true
[    ]     false
[    ]     impossible to say

The proposition A is false. The contradictory proposition B is
[    ]     true
[    ]     false
[    ]     impossible to say

Two propositions A and B have the same terms, i.e. the same subjects and the same predicates, but differ in quantity or quality, or both. The proposition A is true, the proposition B is false. The two propositions A and B

[    ]     can be contradictory
[    ]     cannot be contradictory

[    ]     can be contrary
[    ]     cannot be contrary

[    ]     can be subcontrary
[    ]     cannot be subcontrary

Two propositions A and B have the same terms, i.e. the same subjects and the same predicates, but differ in quantity or quality, or both. The propositions A is true, the proposition B is false. The proposition A

[    ]     can be superaltern to B
[    ]     cannot be superaltern to B

[    ]     can be subaltern to B
[    ]     cannot be subaltern to B

Two propositions A and B have the same terms, i.e. the same subject and the same predicate, but differ in quantity or quality, or both. The propositions A is true, the proposition B is false. The proposition B

[    ]     can be superaltern to A
[    ]     cannot be superaltern to A

[    ]     can be subaltern to A
[    ]     cannot be subaltern to A

Two propositions A and B have the same terms, i.e. the same subject and the same predicate, but differ in quantity or quality, or both. The propositions A and B are both true. The two propositions A and B

[    ]     can be contradictory
[    ]     cannot be contradictory

[    ]     can be contrary
[    ]     cannot be contrary

[    ]     can be subcontrary
[    ]     cannot be subcontrary

Two propositions A and B have the same terms, i.e. the same subject and the same predicate, but differ in quantity or quality, or both. The propositions A and B are both true. The proposition A

[    ]     can be superaltern to B
[    ]     cannot be superaltern to B

[    ]     can be subaltern to B
[    ]     cannot be subaltern to B

Two propositions A and B have the same terms, i.e. the same subject and the same predicate, but differ in quantity or quality, or both. The propositions A and B are both true. The proposition B

[    ]     can be superaltern to A
[    ]     cannot be superaltern to A

[    ]     can be subaltern to A
[    ]     cannot be subaltern to A

Two propositions A and B have the same terms, i.e. the same subject and the same predicate, but differ in quantity or quality, or both. The propositions A and B are both false. The two propositions A and B

[    ]     can be contradictory
[    ]     cannot be contradictory

[    ]     can be contrary
[    ]     cannot be contrary

[    ]     can be subcontrary
[    ]     cannot be subcontrary

Two propositions A and B have the same terms, i.e. the same subject and the same predicate, but differ in quantity or quality, or both. The propositions A and B are both false. The proposition A

[    ]     can be superaltern to B
[    ]     cannot be superaltern to B

[    ]     can be subaltern to B
[    ]     cannot be subaltern to B

Two propositions A and B have the same terms, i.e. the same subject and the same predicate, but differ in quantity or quality, or both. The propositions A and B are both false. The proposition B

[    ]     can be superaltern to A
[    ]     cannot be superaltern to A

[    ]     can be subaltern to A
[    ]     cannot be subaltern to A

o   Select the correct answer.

Two propositions A and B have the same terms, i.e. the same subject and the same predicate, but differ in quantity or quality, or both. The propositions A is true, the proposition B is false. The two propositions A and B

Two propositions A and B have the same terms, i.e. the same subject and the same predicate, but differ in quantity or quality, or both. The propositions A is false, the proposition B is true. The two propositions A and B

Two propositions A and B have the same terms, i.e. the same subject and the same predicate, but differ in quantity or quality, or both. The propositions A and B are both true. The two propositions A and B

Two propositions A and B have the same terms, i.e. the same subject and the same predicate, but differ in quantity or quality, or both. The propositions A and B are both false. The two propositions A and B

[    ]     contradictory
[    ]     contrary
[    ]     subcontrary
[    ]     A, superaltern; B, subaltern
[    ]     A, subaltern; B. superaltern

 

3. Inferences based on transformations of propositions.

 

o   Obvert the following proposition.
o   Convert the following proposition. If conversion is impossible, explain why.
o   Contrapose the following proposition to predicate. If contraposition to predicate is impossible, explain why.
o   Contrapose the following proposition to subject. If contraposition to subject is impossible, explain why.
o   Contrapose the following proposition. If obverted contraposition is impossible, explain why.

All dogs are animals.

All dogs are not non-animals.

All dogs are not non-cats.

All jabberwocks are tovevores.

All mammoths are extinct.

All metals are electrical conductors.

All numbers divisible by four are even.

All squares are rhombuses.

All toves are slithy.

No cat is winged.

No jabberwock is tovevore.

No number divisible by four is odd.

No pentagon is a square.

No square is a pentagon.

No tove is slithy.

Some electrical conductors are metals.

Some electrical conductors are non-metals.

Some electrical conductors are not metals.

Some Italians are non-Venetians.

Some Italians are not Venetians.

Some Italians are Venetians.

Some jabberwocks are not tovevores.

Some jabberwocks are tovevores.

Some numbers divisible by four are divisible by three.

Some numbers divisible by four are not divisible by three.

Some numbers divisible by three are divisible by six.

Some numbers divisible by three are even.

Some numbers divisible by three are not divisible by six.

Some numbers divisible by three are not even.

Some numbers divisible by three are not odd.

Some numbers divisible by three are odd.

Some rhombuses are squares.

Some toves are not slithy.

Some toves are slithy.