Moscow State Institute of International Relations
(MGIMO-University)

B.A. in Government and International Affairs
School of Government and International Affairs

Alexander Shishkin Department of Philosophy

Logic

Tasks and Questions of Quiz 1
(covering themes 1 and 2)

Compiled by Nikolai Biryukov

2021/22 School Year

 

1. Logical relations between concepts.

Which diagram illustrates the logical relation of the following concepts? (If several diagrams correspond to the logical relation in question, please, mark all of them.)

[    ]

[    ]

[    ]

[    ]

[    ]

[    ]

[    ]

[    ]

 

A bicycle – A wheel of a bicycle

A car – A garage

A carpet – A magic carpet

A chemical element – A gas

A chemical element – A noble (inert) gas

A chess player – A poet

A Christmas tree – The Christmas island

A Christmas tree – Christmas

A criminal – A defendant

A European state – An African state

A European state – An Iberian state

A fairy tale character – Snow White

A French poet – A French playwright

A French poet – An English playwright

A French poet – A Japanese poet

A General – A Colonel

A Grandmaster – A Candidate Master

A head of state – A president of a republic

A helicopter – An airplane

A hobbit – A dwarf

A king of France – The present king of France

A knife – Scissors

A mammal – A cat

A mammoth – An extinct animal

A mythological object– A magic carpet

A Pacific island – Easter island

A Pacific island – The island of Madagascar

A passenger train – A train passenger

A pike – A shark

A pine – A tree different from pine

A pine – An elm

A republic – An African state

A river – A river tributary

A river bank – A river

A Russian poet – A Russian novelist

A sea shore – A river bank

A table – A chair

A tree – A pine

A useful thing – A beautiful thing

A violin – A cello

A wheel of a bicycle – A pedal of a bicycle

An airplane – A pilot

An Asian country – A European country

An equilateral quadrangle – An equiangular quadrangle

An equilateral triangle – An equiangular triangle

An inhabitant of France – An inhabitant of Southern France

An island – A lake

An island – A river

An island – A sea

An Mediterranean island – The island of Sicily

An old man – An old woman

France – Southern France

Hamlet – Ghost of Hamlet’s father

Napoleon – A son of Napoleon’s father

Napoleon – An Emperor of France

Napoleon – Napoleon’s cocked hat

Niagara Falls – Lake Ontario

Othello – Shakespeare

Parallel lines – Straight lines in a plane that do not intersect

Paris – Notre-Dame de Paris

Red – Green

Rome – The Colosseum of Rome

Romeo – Juliet

Snow White – A dwarf

Straight – Curved

The area of a circle – The area of a triangle

The Atlantic Ocean – The Pacific Ocean

The author of Hamlet – The author of Othello

The Kremlin – Moscow

The world’s deepest lake – Russia’s deepest lake

Verse – Prose

White – Non-white

William Shakespeare – An English playwright

William Shakespeare – George Bernard Shaw

 

... alternate concepts (a subaltern and a superaltern)

... compatible concepts

... contradictory concepts

... contrary concepts

... cosubaternate concepts

... equivalent concepts

... incompatible concepts

... intersecting concepts

 

2. The kinds of concepts.

Which of the following concepts are absolute?

[    ]     Asteroid
[    ]     Natural satellite
[    ]     Planet

[    ]     Capital
[    ]     City
[    ]     Island

Which of the following concepts are abstract?

[    ]     Human
[    ]     Humane
[    ]     Humankind

Which of the following concepts are abstract singular?

[    ]     A national recreation area
[    ]     The area of a circle
[    ]     The area of France

[    ]     A sonnet of Shakespeare
[    ]     The capital of Senegal
[    ]     The magnetism of Paris

[    ]     Hamlet
[    ]     Hamlet’s soliloquy
[    ]     The theme of Hamlet’s soliloquy

Which of the following concepts are abstract universal?

[    ]     A love triangle
[    ]     The area of a triangle
[    ]     The Bermuda Triangle

[    ]     A portrait lens
[    ]     A portrait of Napoleon
[    ]     The portrait likeness

[    ]     Game
[    ]     Gate
[    ]     Gait

[    ]     Pace
[    ]     Paste
[    ]     Piece

[    ]     Peace
[    ]     Piece
[    ]     Piety

Which of the following concepts are collective?

[    ]     Battalion
[    ]     Pavilion
[    ]     Vermillion

[    ]     Bed
[    ]     Bird
[    ]     Herd

[    ]     Congress
[    ]     Process
[    ]     Progress

[    ]     Crew
[    ]     Screw
[    ]     Shrew

[    ]     Forest
[    ]     Furniture
[    ]     Scissors

[    ]     Human
[    ]     Humane
[    ]     Humankind

Which of the following concepts are compatible?

[    ]     Napoleon and a daughter of Napoleon’s father
[    ]     Napoleon and a son of Napoleon’s father
[    ]     Napoleon and Napoleon’s father

[    ]     The world’s deepest lake and Russia’s deepest lake
[    ]     The world’s deepest lake and Tanzania’s deepest lake
[    ]     The world’s deepest lake and the world’s longest river

[    ]     William Shakespeare and a contemporary of George Bernard Shaw
[    ]     William Shakespeare and an English playwright
[    ]     William Shakespeare and George Bernard Shaw

Which of the following concepts are concrete singular?

[    ]     A national recreation area
[    ]     The area of a circle
[    ]     The area of France

[    ]     A sonnet of Shakespeare
[    ]     The capital of Senegal
[    ]     The magnetism of Paris

[    ]     A university
[    ]     A verse
[    ]     The Universe

[    ]     An actor who played Hamlet
[    ]     A character of Hamlet
[    ]     The author of Hamlet

[    ]     Human
[    ]     Humane
[    ]     Humankind

[    ]     Juliet’s lover
[    ]     The love for Juliet
[    ]     The love of Juliet

Which of the following concepts are concrete universal?

[    ]     A sphere
[    ]     The friendly atmosphere
[    ]     The upper atmosphere

[    ]     A university
[    ]     A verse
[    ]     The Universe

[    ]     Game
[    ]     Gate
[    ]     Gait

[    ]     Human
[    ]     Humane
[    ]     Humankind

[    ]     Nose
[    ]     Pose
[    ]     Rose

Which of the following concepts are contradictory?

[    ]     A beast and a bird
[    ]     A forest and a garden
[    ]     Congruence and incongruence

[    ]     A brother and a sister
[    ]     An acute triangle and an obtuse triangle
[    ]     A straight line and a curved line

[    ]     A pupil and a teacher
[    ]     A sage and a fool
[    ]     Artificial and natural

[    ]     An animal and a human
[    ]     An animal bigger than a horse and an animal smaller than a horse
[    ]     An even number and an odd number

[    ]     Ice and fire
[    ]     Verse and prose
[    ]     Water and granite

Which of the following concepts are contrary?

[    ]     A cavalryman and an infantryman
[    ]     An animal and a bird
[    ]     Artificial and natural

[    ]     A prime number and a composite number
[    ]     Poetry and music
[    ]     Verse and prose

[    ]     An animal and a human
[    ]     An even number and an odd number
[    ]     Black and white

[    ]     Ice and fire
[    ]     Verse and prose
[    ]     Water and granite

Which of the following concepts are empty?

[    ]     A Brazilian giraffe
[    ]     An emperor of Brazil
[    ]     An inhabitant of Brazil

[    ]     A Mars’s moon
[    ]     A Mars’s natural satellite
[    ]     A Moon’s natural satellite

[    ]     A neutron bomb
[    ]     A positively charged electron
[    ]     An aerial bomb

[    ]     A winged animal
[    ]     A wingless animal
[    ]     A wingless seraph

[    ]     An Arctic island
[    ]     An Arctic penguin
[    ]     Arctic ice

[    ]     The first President of the USA
[    ]     The first President of the USSR
[    ]     The third President of the USSR

Which of the following concepts are equivalent?

[    ]     A businessman and a merchant
[    ]     A vocalist and a singer
[    ]     A gondolier and an oarsman

[    ]     A president of the USSR and the first President of the USSR
[    ]     An Arctic island and an uninhabited island
[    ]     Romeo and a character of Romeo and Juliet

[    ]     A vagabond and a traveler
[    ]     The author of Hamlet and the author of Don Quixote
[    ]     The first President of the USSR and the last President of the USSR

[    ]     An equilateral quadrangle and an equiangular quadrangle
[    ]     An equilateral triangle and an equiangular triangle
[    ]     A square and an equilateral quadrangle

[    ]     George Washington and the capital of the United States
[    ]     George Washington and the first President of the United States
[    ]     George Washington and the son of George Washington’s father

[    ]     Napoleon Bonaparte and a brother of Napoleon Bonaparte’s sister
[    ]     Napoleon Bonaparte and an emperor of France
[    ]     Napoleon Bonaparte and the First Consul of the Republic of France

Which of the following concepts are incompatible?

[    ]     Cheese and a dairy product
[    ]     Cheese and a refrigerator
[    ]     Cheese and milk

[    ]     Goethe’s Faust and a drama by Goethe
[    ]     Goethe’s Faust and Gounod’s Faust
[    ]     Gounod’s Faust and an opera by Gounod

[    ]     Katherine Minola and a daughter of Katherine Minola’s father
[    ]     Katherine Minola and a daughter of Katherine Minola’s mother
[    ]     Katherine Minola and Katherine Minola’s husband

[    ]     The world’s deepest lake and Russia’s deepest lake
[    ]     The world’s deepest lake and Tanzania’s deepest lake
[    ]     The world’s deepest lake and the world’s longest river

Which of the following concepts are non-registering?

[    ]     A French tenor
[    ]     An Eleatic philosopher
[    ]     Napoleon Bonaparte’s brother

[    ]     A year’s first day
[    ]     A week’s first day
[    ]     The first President of the USSR

[    ]     An English chemist
[    ]     An English 19th-century poet
[    ]     A graduate of t
he University of Cambridge

[    ]     First among equals
[    ]     The first President of the USSR
[    ]     The last President of the USSR

Which if the following concepts are registering?

[    ]     A French general
[    ]     A French 17th-century general
[    ]     A Roman general

[    ]     A French tenor
[    ]     An Eleatic philosopher
[    ]     Napoleon Bonaparte’s brother

[    ]     An English chemist
[    ]     An English 19th-century poet
[    ]     A graduate of t
he University of Cambridge

[    ]     First among equals
[    ]     The first President of the USSR
[    ]     The last President of the USSR

Which of the following concepts are relational?

[    ]     An accompanist
[    ]     A drummer
[    ]     A violinist

[    ]     A bachelor
[    ]     Brother-in-law
[    ]     Cello

 

3. Definitions and classifications.

Please, explain why the following definition is deficient: point out the violated rule(s) of logical definition and explicate the nature of the breach.

Algebra is one of the broad areas of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis.

Bear is a large and heavy animal with thick hair and sharp claws that can stand on two legs like a person.

Bear is a plantigrade vertebrate with a very short tale.

Bottle is a container for storing liquids.

Bottle is a glass or plastic container with a narrow neck or mouth and no handle.

Cheese is a dairy product.

Conservator is an adherent or advocate of political conservatism.

Dictatorship is the rule of a dictator.

Egypt is an African country.

Gravitation is the true and determinate concept of material corporeality elevated to an idea trough realisation.

Hexagon is a plane figure of six angles and six sides.

Logic is the science of thought.

Man is an adult male.

Man is an individual human of the sex opposite to that of woman.

Marble is a valuable material for sculptors and architects.

Monarch is a person who reigns over a kingdom or empire.

Monarchy is a form of government in which a country is ruled by a monarch.

Nepal is an Asian country.

Nightingale is a small bird best known for its powerful and beautiful song. I

Nightingale is a small passerine bird. I

Octagon is a plane figure of eight angles.

Parallelogram is a quadrilateral with two pairs of equal angles.

Parallelogram is a quadrilateral with two pairs of equal sides.

Parallelogram is a quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides and the diagonals bisecting each other..

Pentagon is a plane figure of five angles and five sides.

Republic is a republican government of a political unit.

Rhombus is a quadrilateral in which each diagonal bisects two opposite interior angles.

Rhombus is a quadrilateral in which the diagonals are perpendicular.

Squirrel is a small rodent having a long bushy tail.

Tamias is a small rodent resembling a squirrel.

This product is the negative identity of the differentiated individuals and is, as realised genus, an asexual life.

To reign means to exercise authority in the manner of a monarch.

Trolleybus is a passenger vehicle that is powered electrically by two overhead wires.

Please, explain why the following classification is deficient: point out the violated rule(s) of classification and explicate the nature of the breach.

All apples are either yellow, or green, or red.

All books are either in verse or in prose.

All countries are either African, or American, or Asian, or European, or Oceanic.

All countries are either African, or American, or Eurasian, or Oceanic.

All countries are either African, or Asian, or European, or North American, or South American, or Oceanic.

All elementary particles are subdivided into those with a positive electric charge and those with a negative electric charge.

All natural numbers greater than one are divisible either by two, or by three, or by five, or by seven, or by eleven, etc. (by other prime numbers).

All opinions are subdivided into mine and wrong.

All propositions are either affirmative, or negative, or particular, or universal.

All quadrangles are either trapeziums, or parallelograms, or rhombuses, or rectangles, or squares, etc.

All sciences are either natural or social.

All states are either monarchies, or presidential republics, or parliamentary republics.

All triangles are either acute, or obtuse.

All triangles are either equilateral, or scalene.

All writers write either poetry or prose.

Any bird is either flying or waterfowl.

Any natural number is either prime, or odd, or even.

Any parallelogram is either a rhombus or a quadrangle.

Any real number is either positive or negative.

Musical instruments are either winds or strings.

Poets are either lyrical, or dramatic, or epic.

The seven continents of Earth are Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia.