Moscow State Institute of International Relations

B.A. in Government and International Affairs
School of Government and International Affairs

Alexander Shishkin Department of Philosophy

The Basics of Philosophy (Philosophy)
Examination Tickets
2020/21 School Year

Ticket 1.

1.     The subject of philosophy and the character of philosophic knowledge.

2.     Francis Bacon. Novum Organum. – Book I, Aphorisms I‑LXX.


Ticket 2.

1.     The ontology of Stoicism.

2.     René Descartes. Meditations on First Philosophy.


Ticket 3.

1.     The philosophy of the Milesian School.

2.     George Berkeley. Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous. – The First Dialogue.


Ticket 4.

1.     The philosophy of Heracleitus.

2.     Kant’s theory of sensuous cognition (the transcendental aesthetic).


Ticket 5.

1.     The philosophy of the Eleatic school.

2.     Kant’s theory of rational understanding (the transcendental analytic).


Ticket 6.

1.     The ontology of Ancient atomism.

2.     Kant’s critique of metaphysics (the transcendental dialectic).


Ticket 7.

1.     The ethics of the Cyrenaic school.

2.     Frances Bacon’s inductive method.


Ticket 8.

1.     Plato’s theory of Forms (Ideas).

2.     Spinoza’s version of rationalism.


Ticket 9.

1.     The ethics of Stoicism.

2.     Hegel’s dialectics.


Ticket 10.

1.     Aristotle’s logic.

2.     Descartes’ ontology.


Ticket 11.

1.     Philosophy of the Cynic school.

2.     Descartes’ epistemology.


Ticket 12.

1.     Aristotle’s ontology.

2.     John Locke versus Gottfried Leibniz: the problem of innate knowledge.


Ticket 13.

1.     Aristotle’s epistemology.

2.     Medieval theodicy.


Ticket 14.

1.     Aristotle’s criticism of the Platonic theory of forms (ideas) (Metaphysics. – Book I, Ch. 9).

2.     Hume’s skepticism.


Ticket 15.

  1. Ancient skepticism.
  2. Leibniz’s ontology.


Ticket 16.

1.     Plato. Meno.

2.     The evolution of Western empiricism in the 17th and 18th centuries.


Ticket 17.

1.     Epicurus. Letter to Menoeceus.

2.     Kant’s theory of knowledge.


Ticket 18.

1.     Plato’s theory of knowledge.

2.     The major stages in the development of Western philosophy.


Ticket 19.

1.     Aristotle on the kinds of knowledge and the subject of philosophy (Metaphysics. – Book I, Ch. 1‑2).

2.     The evolution of Western rationalism in the 17th and 18th centuries.


Ticket 20.

1.     The problem of universals in Medieval philosophy.

2.     George Berkeley’s epistemology and ontology.


Ticket 21.

1.     The problem of God’s existence in Medieval philosophy.

2.     Hegel’s philosophical system.


Ticket 22.

1.     Aristotle on the beginnings of philosophy (Metaphysics. – Book I, Ch. 3‑8).

2.     Karl Marx: the materialist conception of history.


Ticket 23.

1.     The epistemology of Ancient atomism.

2.     Karl Marx’ concept of alienated labour.