Moscow State Institute of International Relations

B.A. in Government and International Affairs
School of Government and International Affairs

Alexander Shishkin Department of Philosophy

Introduction to Philosophy
Examination Tickets
2021/22 School Year

Ticket 1.

1.     The subject of philosophy and the character of philosophic knowledge.

2.     Francis Bacon. Novum Organum. – Book I, Aphorisms I‑LXX.


Ticket 2.

1.     The philosophy of Heracleitus.

2.     René Descartes. Meditations on First Philosophy.


Ticket 3.

1.     The philosophy of the Milesian School.

2.     George Berkeley. Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous. – The First Dialogue.


Ticket 4.

1.     The evolution of Western empiricism in the 17th and 18th centuries.

2.     Kant’s theory of sensuous cognition (the transcendental aesthetic).


Ticket 5.

1.     The philosophy of the Eleatic school.

2.     Kant’s theory of rational understanding (the transcendental analytic).


Ticket 6.

1.     The ontology of Ancient atomism.

2.     Kant’s critique of metaphysics (the transcendental dialectic).


Ticket 7.

1.     Plato’s theory of Forms (Ideas).

2.     Frances Bacon’s inductive method.


Ticket 8.

1.     Plato’s theory of knowledge.

1.     Spinoza’s version of rationalism.


Ticket 9.

1.     The epistemology of Ancient atomism.

2.     Hegel’s dialectics.


Ticket 10.

1.     Aristotle’s criticism of the Platonic theory of forms (ideas) (Metaphysics. – Book I, Ch. 9).

2.     Descartes’ epistemology.


Ticket 11.

1.     Aristotle’s ontology.

2.     John Locke versus Gottfried Leibniz: the problem of innate knowledge.


Ticket 12.

1.     Plato. Meno.

2.     Hume’s skepticism.


Ticket 13.

  1. Frances Bacon’s theory of the idols of the mind.
  2. Leibniz’s ontology.


Ticket 14.

1.     The evolution of Western rationalism in the 17th and 18th centuries.

2.     Kant’s theory of knowledge.


Ticket 15.

1.     Aristotle on the kinds of knowledge and the subject of philosophy (Metaphysics. – Book I, Ch. 1‑2).

2.     Descartes’ ontology.


Ticket 16.

1.     Aristotle’s epistemology.

2.     George Berkeley’s epistemology and ontology.


Ticket 17.

1.     The major stages in the development of Western philosophy.

2.     Hegel’s philosophical system.


Ticket 18.

1.     Aristotle on the beginnings of philosophy (Metaphysics. – Book I, Ch. 3‑8).

2.     Karl Marx: the materialist conception of history.